Ecology and Karyotype of hibiscus

Hibiscus is easy to grow in most well drained soils but can tolerate poor soils. It requires 4-8 months growth with night-time temperatures with a minimum of 20 _C, as well as 13 h of sunlight and a monthly rainfall ranging from 51000 (130250 mm) during the first few months to prevent premature flowering. Rain or high humidity during the harvest time and drying process can downgrade the quality of the calyces and reduce the yield. The quality of Hs is determined by seed stock, local growing conditions, time of harvest, post-harvest handling and mainly the drying step. Most of the time it grows as a supplement crop and it is susceptible to fungi, viral and bacterial attack and also to insects. A single plant produces about 1.5 kg of fruit, approximately 8 t/ha. Yields of leaves may be about 10 t/ha (EcoCrop., 2007; Plotto, 2004). 2.3. Karyotype 2n = 36 (Huang, Zhao, Chen, Chen, & Huang, 1989; Menzel & Wilson, 1961) and 72 (Chennaveeraiah & Subbarao, 1965; Rao, 1935; Wilson & Menzel, 1964) were observed. Somatic tissue showing diploid and tetraploid segments were also occasionally noticed (Tjio, 1948). In a karyomorphological study conducted in India, both root and flower segments showed great similarity in the types of chromosomes in the complement. This indicates that the tetraploid tissue must have arisen in an autotetraploid manner (Bhatt & Dasgupta, 1976). Later, this species was reported to be tetraploid (2n = 72) (Hiron, Alam, Ahmed, Begum, & Alam, 2006).


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